Increased risks of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm labor and adverse perinatal outcomes associated with APH. Others are Oligohydramnios, Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), Increased rates of cesarean section, and Postpartum hemorrhage. Prevention and treatment of anemia in all pregnant women helps minimize maternal morbidity associated with APH.
Question: Which of the following are antepartum risk factors for obstetric hemorrhage?
- Placental abruption.
- Prolonged labor
- All of the above